2 – Problem definition

Problem Statements

Problem statement
Problem statement - patient
Jobs-to-be-done version

And there is also a problem statement for a carer / family member:

problem statement
Problem statement - carer

Target users

Having in mind that people with dementia will have difficulties with using an app, I decided to create an app with two interfaces. The users will be:

  • carer / family member
  • patient with diagnosed dementia


The main persona here is Audrey, with diagnosed dementia. Arthur is her husband and Paula is her carer.

Empathy map

Empathy Map
Empathy Map





Customer journey map


Customer journey map
Customer journey map





Entire worksheet available here in Figma.


Agius, A. (2018, December 6). How to Create an Effective Customer Journey Map [Examples Template]. Retrieved April 28, 2019, from https://blog.hubspot.com/service/customer-journey-map

Klement, A. (2019, February 12). The Jobs to be Done Data Model. Retrieved April 28, 2019, from https://jtbd.info/the-jobs-to-be-done-data-model-b270f6fc445

Fulton, G. (2016, October 26). Making the Web Accessible for Everyone With Inclusive Design and Diverse Personas. Retrieved April 28, 2019, from https://webdesign.tutsplus.com/articles/making-the-web-accessible-for-everyone-with-inclusive-design-and-diverse-personas--cms-27505

Gibbons, S. (2018, January 14). Empathy Mapping: The First Step in Design Thinking. Retrieved April 28, 2019, from https://www.nngroup.com/articles/empathy-mapping/

Grozny, M. (2018, December 01). 17 reasons to use Storyboards in UX Design. Retrieved April 28, 2019, from https://uxdesign.cc/17-reasons-to-use-a-storyboards-in-ux-design-2bc6fea73e20

Henry, S. L. (n.d.). Accessibility in User-Centered Design: Personas. Retrieved April 28, 2019, from http://uiaccess.com/accessucd/personas.html

How to write in plain English[Pdf]. (n.d.). Plain English Campaign.



This was my first time to actually draw a storyboard with my hand, and while doing it, I actually realized the importance of picturing the entire "To-Be" scenario and how it might help in my future design decisions. I learned that storyboards can also enhance journey maps by adding an image of the user‘s context in different stages while using the product.



2 - User Research

Detailed user research is crucial for good design, and if done properly it can lead to a great product without wasting time and resources. (Cooper, 2014)


As-Is Walkthrough

We did two walkthroughs, one for the return flight and one for multi-city trips, on mobile app and desktop, with scenario maps for each.

Heuristics Evaluation

The app is done quite well from this side, but there are still some parts to improve, related to error prevention, visibility of system status, help and consistency.

Competitor Research

After Aer Lingus analysis, we decided to run a detailed analysis of two competitors in the direct airline service (KLM and RyanAir), but also of two flight comparison providers (SkyScanner and Google Flights), in the hope we'll find some good practices there as well.



We didn't actually know which method to use, so we checked Nielsen's article  When to Use Which User-Experience Research Methods. After reading it, we discovered we are in both "Strategize" and "Asses" phase, because we needed to explore new opportunities and measure the existing performance of the app. In both of the phases we found surveys, so we picked that as our first research method where we'll hopefully cover the answers on both of the phases. Even though this method qualifies as a qualitative, we used it for capturing both qualitative and quantitative data.

Usability Testing

Using this quantitative method, we tried to measure how well a user can complete a certain task and reveal the possible problems they encounter. We could also get a better insight into the things that user likes and doesn't like on the web site and mobile app.

At this point, it's crucial to listen to the users and analyze the suggestions, because sometimes they may have ideas on how to improve the design and experience of the app.

Stepping into our users shoes

After getting feedback from the surveys and all the data from our interviews and usability testing, we did a segmentation table based on the categories listed below.


Instead of guessing who might be our user, we decided to identify the appropriate individuals that represent the needs and interests of the larger group. From the data we analyzed, we created two personas - Mario and Conor.

One of the main benefits I discovered after creating personas is how it helped me build more empathy for the flight app users. The best way to meet all the user's goals is to place the user at the center of the design process.

We created two As-Is Scenarios so we can easily structure the problem and target our users' needs as we moved ahead.


Scenario - Conor


Scenario - Mario

Being led with a thought "Designing for everyone is designing for nobody" we decided to focus on just one persona - Mario, who covers most of our audience.

Empathy Map

Storytelling Canvas



We also created prioritisation matrix which helped us to map the features and improvements that require less effort and bring more value to the product.

Prioritization Matrix


Having this in mind, it was easy to create To-Be Scenarios for both return and multi-city trips.

To-Be Scenario Map
To-Be Scenario Map for Return Flight


To-Be Scenario Map
To-Be Scenario Map for multi-city trip

Please continue reading, follow on to the next step Designing the prototype



Cooper, A., Reimann, R., Cronin, D., & Cooper, A. (2014). About face: The essentials of interaction design. Indianapolis, IN: John Wiley and Sons.

DeFranzo, S. (2017, September 21). 4 Main Benefits of Survey Research. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://www.snapsurveys.com/blog/4-main-benefits-survey-research/

Gibbons, S. (2018, May 27). Using Prioritization Matrices to Inform UX Decisions. Retrieved January 20, 2019, from https://www.nngroup.com/articles/prioritization-matrices/

Gibbons, S. (2018, January 14). Empathy Mapping: The First Step in Design Thinking. Retrieved from https://www.nngroup.com/articles/empathy-mapping/

Krause, R. (2018, July 15). Storyboards Help Visualize UX Ideas. Retrieved from https://www.nngroup.com/articles/storyboards-visualize-ideas/

Krug, S. (2010). Rocket surgery made easy: The do-it-yourself guide to finding and fixing usability problems. Berkeley, CA: New Riders.

Nielsen, J. (1995, January 1). 10 Heuristics for User Interface Design: Article by Jakob Nielsen. Retrieved December 13, 2018, from https://www.nngroup.com/articles/ten-usability-heuristics/

Preece, J., Sharp, H., & Rogers, Y. (2017). Interaction design: Beyond human-computer interaction. Chichester (West Sussex, United Kingdom): Wiley.

Plantenberg, S. (n.d.). Understand users through scenario mapping. Retrieved December 15, 2018, from https://www.ibm.com/cloud/garage/content/think/practice_scenario_mapping/

Reimann, R. (2005, November 3). Personas, Goals, and Emotional Design. Retrieved from https://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2005/11/personas-goals-and-emotional-design.php

Rohrer, C. (2014, October 12). When to Use Which User-Experience Research Methods. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://www.nngroup.com/articles/which-ux-research-methods/

Tools, J. (2016, December 29). Get your story right: The Storytelling Canvas. – Journalism Tools – Medium. Retrieved December 17, 2018, from https://medium.com/@Journalism2ls/introducing-the-storytelling-canvas-d2e3165a8ca2

Zapier. (n.d.). Surveys 101: A Simple Guide to Asking Effective Questions. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from https://zapier.com/learn/forms-surveys/writing-effective-survey/


2 - Personas & Scenarios


Persona Definition


After we completed a user research, it was time to dig a bit more and create personas and scenarios from the same data, because we wanted everything to be accurate and representative of actual users of a product.


Developing the Personas


As a group, we gathered together to create these personas based on data collected during our previous user interviews.

First, we went through the user reviews we found on Google Play Store and App Store I mentioned in the previous article, because this project didn't have a huge amount of time to do extensive user research. We found out that most of the frustration was around logging in and transferring money. We found similar frustrations in our usability tests of the application “as-is”. We decided on each personas behaviour patterns, their end goals and more long-term life goals.

We had to choose the right individuals to design for and focus on those users whose needs best represent the needs of a larger set of key audience. Then we had to prioritise them so that the needs of the most important users are satisfied without compromising our ability to meet the needs of secondary users as well.



Card sorting
We wanted to have better understanding about our users' mental model, so we did Card sorting session (click on the image to watch the video)


We also discovered that, by observing our users, we can better understand their behaviour and motivations and then design accordingly. We also spent time carefully choosing the photographs to represent our personas, we wanted the photo to correctly illustrate the narrative of this user.

Eventually, this is what we came up with:


Ann as our primary persona, with clear goals and understandable frustrations.


And John as our secondary persona.


We used demographically quite different personas but with similar pain points. These demographics were to reflect the wide variety of users of banking apps in Ireland; a report by Visa showed that by 2020, they expected 94% of millennials to be using mobile banking, along with 77% of over 65’s (Visa, 2017).

The main benefits I found after creating two personas, is that it helped us as a team build more empathy for the users and develop an understanding of our users' goals in specific contexts. Having to think for and make decisions using this users mental models truly puts you ‘in their shoes’ and able to see tasks from a very different angle.

In fact, I believe that the best way to transform the user research into our design is through personas. Later on, we will also try to consider these personas as potential participants for our user testing sessions later in the process.


Developing the User Scenarios


We also came up with persona-based scenarios, which are best used to capture the non-verbal dialogue between the user and a product. We started our designs from a story describing an ideal experience from the persona’s perspective, focusing on people and how they think and behave, rather than on technology or business goals.


Persona based SCenarios


As a team we developed two scenarios based on the user interviews and reviews we conducted during our research phase. These ‘Context Scenarios’ are built upon the issues those users came across on a daily basis. Now with the basis planned out for each scenario, we exercised our creative writing skills and put one persona through each scenario. We kept each personas needs, behaviours and goals in mind while writing each scenario.


So, our persona is Ann. A busy working-mother who has limited time outside of work for other tasks and likes to spend that time with family. For instance, where possible she performs all her banking on her phone and ‘shoehorns’ the tasks into her daily routine.


login scenario
Scenario 1 Storyboard - related to "Login" Functionality on PTSB mobile banking app

Scenario #1

"Monday morning and Ann is running late for work. She has several things on her mind and knows that she has to do the weekly shopping after work.

Today is payday and Ann needs to make sure she has been paid to have money for the shopping. If she hasnt been paid she will have to transfer money from her savings account.

The traffic is bad and Ann doesnt want to be too late for work.Once she gets to office car park and decides to quickly check her bank balance before running up to her desk.

Once she knows if she has to transfer money or not she can get this done and then continue with her day knowing the funds are there.

She opens her banking app and logins in for a quick overview of her accounts.

She has been paid!"


new payee scenario
Scenario 2 Storyboard - related to "Pay to a New Person" Functionality on PTSB mobile banking app

Scenario #2

"It is Friday evening and Ann is at home with her husband and daughter. Their son is at the cinema with friends.

He has just called to say he left his wallet at home and has no way of paying for the cinema ticket. By the time Ann of her husband would have driven to meet their son, the film would have started. Her son doesn’t want to miss the night with friends and is worried he will be left on his own.

Ann suggests she transfer money to her son’s friend, so they can withdraw from an ATM. She has never transferred money to this friend so she will have to set up a new payee.

Her son’s friend texts Ann his IBAN. Ann uses her banking app to add his details as a new payee and then transfer money for the ticket, plus some extra for her son to get home.

After she has done this her son texts to say he has his ticket and is going in to the screen, and thanks."



Creating storyboards helped us to empathise with the situation our personas were in. They clearly portray the story of a fictional character in situations we can relate to and become interested in.




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  3. Cooper, A., Reimann, R., & Cronin, D. (2007). About face 3: The essentials of interaction design. INpolis, IN: Wiley Publishing.
  4. Laubheimer, P. (2017, August 6). Personas vs. Jobs-to-Be-Done. Retrieved October 26, 2018, from https://www.nngroup.com/articles/personas-jobs-be-done/?lm=why-personas-fail&pt=article
  5. Norman, D. A. (n.d.). Emotional design: Why we love (or hate) everyday things. New York, NY: Basic Books.
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