2 – Problem definition

Problem Statements

Problem statement
Problem statement - patient
Jobs-to-be-done version

And there is also a problem statement for a carer / family member:

problem statement
Problem statement - carer

Target users

Having in mind that people with dementia will have difficulties with using an app, I decided to create an app with two interfaces. The users will be:

  • carer / family member
  • patient with diagnosed dementia


The main persona here is Audrey, with diagnosed dementia. Arthur is her husband and Paula is her carer.

Empathy map

Empathy Map
Empathy Map





Customer journey map


Customer journey map
Customer journey map





Entire worksheet available here in Figma.


Agius, A. (2018, December 6). How to Create an Effective Customer Journey Map [Examples Template]. Retrieved April 28, 2019, from https://blog.hubspot.com/service/customer-journey-map

Klement, A. (2019, February 12). The Jobs to be Done Data Model. Retrieved April 28, 2019, from https://jtbd.info/the-jobs-to-be-done-data-model-b270f6fc445

Fulton, G. (2016, October 26). Making the Web Accessible for Everyone With Inclusive Design and Diverse Personas. Retrieved April 28, 2019, from https://webdesign.tutsplus.com/articles/making-the-web-accessible-for-everyone-with-inclusive-design-and-diverse-personas--cms-27505

Gibbons, S. (2018, January 14). Empathy Mapping: The First Step in Design Thinking. Retrieved April 28, 2019, from https://www.nngroup.com/articles/empathy-mapping/

Grozny, M. (2018, December 01). 17 reasons to use Storyboards in UX Design. Retrieved April 28, 2019, from https://uxdesign.cc/17-reasons-to-use-a-storyboards-in-ux-design-2bc6fea73e20

Henry, S. L. (n.d.). Accessibility in User-Centered Design: Personas. Retrieved April 28, 2019, from http://uiaccess.com/accessucd/personas.html

How to write in plain English[Pdf]. (n.d.). Plain English Campaign.


1 – Research inclusive design


Each design decision tends to include or exclude the customers. On the other side, inclusive design considers as many customer's needs and abilities as possible. It stretches wider than accessibility, which is mainly focused on people with certain disabilities and making sites usable for them.

The proposition of inclusive design is that aside from permanent disabilities there are temporary, situational or changing disabilities that can affect us all. Temporary impairment can occur when we use mobile devices in noisy surroundings, when we struggle with screen glare etc.


Principle 1: Learn from diversity

People should be at the centre from the very start of the process, and those different perspectives of each person are the key to true insight.

Principle 2: Solve for one, extend to many

Everyone has certain abilities and disabilities. If we focus on designing for people with disabilities, we can easily end up with a design that benefits to people universally.

Principle 3: Simple and Intuitive Use

No matter what user's knowledge or concentration level is, the design should be intuitive and easy to understand. There should be no complexity and a proper feedback should be given during and after task completion.


Validation of the problem

As people age, they regularly experience difficulties with their motor or cognitive capabilities. In the recent study published by Alzheimer Society of Ireland (2017), it has been stated that the risk of developing dementia increases in older age. They also predict that 150,000 people will be living with dementia by 2046 in Ireland.

This means that the need for carers of people with dementia will also increase. At the moment, family members are providing that care – mostly a spouse or a partner who is similar age as the patient. More than 15% of people have quit their jobs so they can care for their partner and almost 50% of partners/carers said they spent all of their time when they were awake looking after their spouse.



Concept map
Concept map


Study has also shown that 75% of the carers had a "good mental health", while 13.4% of the them had a moderate level of psychological pain. Aggression, anxiety, irritability and night-time behavioural disruptions were graded as the most distressing care-recipient symptoms by carers.

They also found out that 33% of carers had seen a doctor because of the emotional problems they had, and 14% done this after their partner was diagnosed with dementia. 37% of carers reported clinically serious symptoms of the depression.

The scariest fact here is that the depression symptoms did not decrease within those who stopped providing care at follow-up. This means that carers are at a high risk of mental health problems and they should receive the support even after finishing their caregiving role.

The biggest aspect to carer stress was the severity of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Having that in mind, it's no surprise that carer’s confidence in handling these symptoms decreased over time. This highlights the specific challenges of dementia care and the importance of considering a tool/app that could help both patient when having behavioural disruptions and the carer as well, knowing what to do in the specific situation and calm after.



Brennan, S., Lawlor, B., Pertl, M., & O'Sullivan, M. (2017). De-Stress-Report-2017[Pdf]. Dublin: The Alzheimer Society if Ireland.

Clark, J., & Clark, J. (2017, May 16). Using the Amazon Echo to improve the lives of Alzheimer's patients. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from https://medium.com/@JaysThoughts/using-the-amazon-echo-to-improve-the-lives-of-alzheimers-patients-f5727560a5eb

Dementia Friendly Hospital Guidelines from a Universal Design Approach. (n.d.). Retrieved April 13, 2019, from http://universaldesign.ie/News-events/News/-Dementia-Friendly-Hospital-Guidelines-from-a-Universal-Design-Approach.html

Health, U. (2013, May 09). What is Dementia? | Dr. David B. Reuben - UCLA Alzheimer's and Dementia Care Program. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gIUEBXt0ako

Lindberg, O. (2018, March 23). Inclusive Design: 12 Ways to Design for Everyone – Shopify. Retrieved April 22, 2019, from https://www.shopify.ie/partners/blog/inclusive-design

Logan, B. (2016). Caregiver's Guide to Understanding Dementia Behaviors. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from https://www.caregiver.org/caregivers-guide-understanding-dementia-behaviors

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What is Design For All? (n.d.). Retrieved April 13, 2019, from http://designforall.org/design.php

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Xiao, L., & Xiao, L. (2018, June 21). 6 Principles for Inclusive Design. Retrieved April 13, 2019, from https://uxplanet.org/6-principles-for-inclusive-design-3e9867f7f63e